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Different kinds of china

Vase

1917-1926, art department

Porcelain, pottery and fayence are all in the family of the earthenware. That means that different parts from the earth would be prepare, come in fixed quantity together and bind up in a fired oven. The biggest different between porcelain and pottery is the consolidation of the materials in influence with the heat. Thereby porcelain gets its hardness and its white, partly half transparend appearance contrary to pottery. Here I would like to enumerate some different kinds of porcelain, which developed in the course of the time. The composition of the porcelains is regionally various. One cause is that the materials are regionally various too.

The hard-paste porcelain:
The composition this porcelain consists usually of approx 50% kaolin, 25% feldspar and 25% quartz. This porcelain is at least twice burned in his production. The first burn for the raw piece is approx 900°C - 1000°C. Now the piece is immersed into the liquid glaze mass. It receives now the so-called smooth burn with approx 1100°C - 1500°C. Now the components of the porcelain mass as well as the glaze is merged (sinters). In the past the shrinking of the porcelain (special at big pieces) about 10 - 15% in the production was a large problem. So-called burn cracks and thus a high committee from parts were the result. For decorated porcelain can it be necessary to make further burns with approx 850°C to connect the decoration with the glaze.

The soft-paste porcelain:
Soft-paste porcelain (in german "Frittenporzellan") is " false " Porcelain, since it does not contain kaolin. It was manufactured in a complicated procedure primarily in 18. century in France. For the production of this porcelain they mixed quartz sand, Salpeter, Kochsalz, Soda, Alaun and Calciumsulfat. The intermediate product from this was the "frit". This must grind again and mixed in the relationship 3:1 with a sedimentary rock which approximately was to 50% of clay / tone and 50% of lime consists. This porcelain is much more sensitive about temperature differences and mechanical influences because it has a smaller firing temperature.

The Medici porcelain:
This is a kind of stoneware, which was made with quartz and the frit. It was produced in the 2nd half of the 16. century. But it was not possible to produce this material in a pure white colour. The material was between gray and yellow and the pieces are usually blue decorated.

The bone-china porcelain:
Bone China is well-known also as bone porcelain. It is a soft porcelain developed in England. Its composition exists to 50% from cattle bone, 25% feldspar and quartz and to 25% from kaolin. Contrary to the hard porcelain is the first burn for bone porcelain with approx 1200°C a little bit higher, the second and third burn over approx 400°C lower.

The biscuit porcelain:
In produce it is the same porcelain like the hard-paste porcelain. Contrary it has no glaze. So the surface looks like silk.

The egg-shells porcelain:
This is very thin-walled porcelain, which its origin in the 15. century in China has. There they made around 1600 primarily tea table-ware of this porcelain in the strength of bamboo paper.

The Delfter porcelain:
The Delfter porcelain is in reality a faience. This is very colourful like the Italian Fayance. The style is shared to the decoration of the older pieces to Chinese models.